ツーリングの記録等に使おうと思っていたが。。。タイトルは最初の記事の3500km, 13日, 12ヶ国, 自動二輪, 空冷単気筒の意。


God as Genetic Engineer
Carroll, Science 316: 1427-1428 (2007)
 上の記事は「進化の闘士」ショーン・キャロル教授がID論者マイケル・ベーエ教授の本「The Edge of Evolution」を書評したものです。こてんぱんにこき下ろした後、ID論者をモンティ・パイソンの黒騎士になぞらえてこのように結ばれています。

The knights of ID may profess these blows are "but a scratch" or "just a flesh wound," but the argument for design has no scientific leg to stand on.


The calmodulin pathway and evolution beak morphology in Darwin's finches
Abzhanov et al., Nature 442: 563-567 (2006)


Collection and treatment of embryonic material from Darwin's finches.
Under an agreement with the Galapagos National Park, we received quotas for collecting embryos of G. magnirostris, G. fortis, G. fuliginosa and G. scandens from Santa Cruz Island, and G. conirostris, G. difficilis and C. olivacea from Genovesa Island. To avoid causing nest defection, only the third egg was collected shortly after it was laid; it was then incubated at 100 ˚F (37.8 ˚C). Embryonic material was fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS for 2 h at ambient temperature and stored in RNAlater reagent (Ambion) at about 5 ˚C for two to five weeks. Chick antisense riboprobes (CaM, Coll IX, Runx2 and PTHrP-Rec) were prepared and used on Darwin's finch embryos as described previously. We analysed 26 heads of Darwin's finches: large ground finch (n = 3), medium ground finch (n = 5), small ground finch (n = 4), large cactus finch (n = 4), cactus finch (n = 3), sharp-beaked finch (n = 3) and warbler finch (n = 4).


上記三点いずれも、科学者が検証すれば落第でしょう(注)。かのドーキンスも調査捕鯨に疑義を唱えたそうで。別にドーキンスじゃなくても普通に科学の訓練を受けた人間なら調査捕鯨を弁護しろといわれれば降参するしかありません(何か特別の事情でもない限りは)。日本は科学的な適切さすら自らの手で減じてしまったのです。ドーキンスらが名を連ねたニューヨークタイムズ紙上(2002年5月20日付だそうです)の公開質問状がJapan Timesに部分的に抜粋されています。他にロジェ・ギルマンアーロン・クルーグアラン・マクダイアミッドエドワード・オズボーン・ウィルソンも名を連ねています。

Scientists petition Japan to lay down harpoons

An open letter to the government of Japan

Despite its obligation to comply with a global moratorium on commercial whaling, Japan has killed thousands of whales over the past decade, claiming an exemption for "scientific whaling" under international law. We, the undersigned scientists, believe Japan's whale-research program fails to meet minimum standards for credible science. In particular:

We are concerned that Japan's whaling program is not designed to answer scientific questions relevant to the management of whales; that Japan has refused to make the information it collects available for independent review; and that its research program lacks a testable hypothesis or other performance indicators consistent with accepted scientific standards.

Most of the data being gathered by Japan's "scientific whaling" are obtainable by non-lethal means; it is possible, for example, to determine species, gender, population size, migration patterns, stock fidelity, and other key biological information without harming whales. . . .

The commercial nature of Japan's whaling program conflicts with its scientific independence. Japan sells meat from the whales it kills on commercial markets and assigns "scientific whaling" quotas to individual whaling villages. These commercial ties create a profit incentive to kill whales even when no scientific need exists . . .

Japan has announced it will soon begin killing sei whales, an internationally listed endangered species, ostensibly to determine the whales' diet. . . . There is no reasonable likelihood that killing additional sei whales now will add to what is already known about their diet.

By continuing to fund and carry out this program, Japan opens itself to serious charges that it is using the pretense of scientific research to evade its commitments to the world community. As scientists, we believe this compromises objective decision-making and undermines public confidence in the role of science to guide policy. Accordingly, we respectfully urge the Japanese government to suspend its "scientific whaling" program.


[21 individual scientists]

 日本政府はこれに答えたのでしょうか。私にはこの批判が文化的バイアス ーすなわち欧米と日本のクジラ観の違いー だけで片付けられるものとは思えません。捕鯨の黒騎士は調査捕鯨に対する数々の科学的批判にあれこれ屁理屈をこねているが、そもそもよって立つ科学的な脚が無いのだ。


1. Nagasaki, Nature 344: 189-190 (1990)
2. 大隅清治「クジラと日本人」岩波新書 (2003)
3. Sakuramoto & Tanaka, Rep. int. Whal. Commn 39: 371-373 (1989)
 参考 http://www.kaiyodai.ac.jp/Japanese/db/0010/0210/TH_40803814.html
4. de la Mare, Nature 345: 771 (1990)
 参考 http://kkneko.sblo.jp/article/17287129.html#comment
5. Ishii & Okubo, Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 10: 55-87 (2007)
 参考 www.greenpeace.or.jp/campaign/oceans/whale/documents/evidence12-2
6. http://kaiseki.ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~katukawa/blog/2007/11/post_237.html
7. Jarman et al., Molecular Ecology 11: 2679-2690 (2002)
8. Iverson et al., Ecological Monographs 74: 211-235 (2004)
 参考 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/Dr-Seton/20080122/1200991642#c
9. Morell, Science 316: 532-534 (2007)
 参考 http://3500131221.blog120.fc2.com/blog-entry-28.html
10. Gales et al., Nature 435: 883-884 (2005)
11. http://chikyu-to-umi.com/kkneko/frame7.htm
12. www.whalelove.org/raw/content/fun/1677143.pdf
13. 石井敦『科学』岩波書店2008年7月号: 704-705 (2008)
 参考 http://3500131221.blog120.fc2.com/blog-entry-33.html

テーマ:捕鯨・反捕鯨問題 - ジャンル:政治・経済